Statistical Analysis of Standard Allowed Minute on Sewing Efficiency in Apparel Industry
Mulat Alubel Abtew, Annu Kumari, Ambika Babu, and Yan Hong
Apparel industry is not only one of the oldest, largest, labor-intensive, and most global industries but also the typical “starter” industry for countries engaged in export-orientated industrialization. To achieve such dreams, the industry has looked over different inter-dependable factors while producing different products. In this study, an effort has been made to establish a correlation between standard allowed minutes (SAMs) and efficiency of sewing section using different variables, including production rate, number of workstations, and operation breakdown, having a differential impact on both the selected variables. All the empirical analyses were planned in a vertically integrated textile company called Almeda Textile Private Limited Company (PLC), Ethiopia, starting from the basic product category (such as V-neck shirt) up to complicated workwear including military clothing and federal police uniforms of Ethiopia. The Pearson correlation coefficient method was chosen to find the relationship between bivariate linearly scaled variables using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The expected outcome will help in identifying the type of correlation and its significant level as well as its impact on the overall productivity of the sewing section which eventually leads to fulfilling the mission of attaining sustainable production capacity of the mentioned vertically integrated manufacturing company.
Study on the Relationship Between Structure Parameters and Filtration Performance of Polypropylene Meltblown Nonwovens
Yuanxiang Xiao, Nazmus Sakib, Zhonghua Yue, Yan Wang, Si Cheng, Jianmin You, Jiri Militky, Mohanapriya Venkataraman, and Guocheng Zhu
In this study, polypropylene meltblown nonwoven fabrics with different structure parameters such as fiber diameter, pore size, and areal density were prepared by the industrial production line. The morphology of meltblown nonwoven fibers was evaluated by using scanning electron microscope, and the diameter of fibers was analyzed by using image-pro plus software from at least 200 measurements. The pore size of nonwoven fabric was characterized by a CFP-1500AE type pore size analyzer. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop were evaluated by TSI8130 automatic filter. The results showed that the pressure drop of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in pore size; the filtration efficiency and the pressure drop had a positive correlation with the areal density. However, when the areal density is in the range of 27–29 g/m2, both filtration efficiency and pressure drop decreased with the increase of areal density; when the areal density was kept constant, the filtration efficiency decreased as the pore size decreased; when the pore size of the meltblown nonwoven fabric is less than 17 μm, the filtration efficiency increased as the pore diameter decreased; when the pore diameter of the nonwoven fabric is larger than 17 μm. In a wide range, the pressure drop decreased as the fiber diameter decreased.
Merging Footwear Design and Functionality
Suzana Kutnjak-Mravlinčić, Jadranka Akalović, and Sandra Bischof
Functionality and appearance are key aspects of good footwear. Developments in recent science and technology offer a wider scope of innovations, contributing to diversity and higher complexity of the production concept of footwear. Contemporary industrial footwear market offers a practically limitless number of new design and fashion solutions, often of quite similar appearance, but with significant differences in quality level, both regarding manufacture, raw material content, durability, and in some special functional finishes. The materials for footwear manufacture are functionalized for functional protective purposes, such as antimicrobial, waterproofing, fire resistant, wear and tear resistant, and recently for some therapeutical purposes. Novelties in material functionalization for the materials built in the footwear are most often promoted and presented on tags and labels and are used as advertisement issues, while some functionalities have become a logo for some brands.
Nonwovens: Global Trends in World Economy, European Foreign Trade, and Selected Case Studies from Poland and Asian Brics Countries
Zofia Wysokińska, Tomasz Czajkowski, and Katarzyna Grabowska
Nonwovens are one of the most versatile textile materials and have become increasingly popular in almost all sectors of the economy due to their low manufacturing costs and unique properties. In the next few years, the world market of nonwovens is predicted to grow by 7%–8% annually (International Nonwovens & Disposables Association [INDA], European Disposables and Nonwovens Association [EDANA], and Markets and Markets). This article aims to analyze the most recent trends in the global export and import of nonwovens, to present two case studies of Polish companies that produce them, and to present one special case study of the market of nonwoven geotextiles in China and India, which are the Asian transition economies among the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa).
Wysokińska, Z., Czajkowski, T., & Grabowska, K. (2020). Nonwovens: Global Trends in World Economy, European Foreign Trade, and Selected Case Studies from Poland and Asian Brics Countries, Autex Research Journal, 20(4), 382-414. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/aut-2020-0028
Sewing Thread Consumption for Different Lockstitches of Class 300 Using Geometrical and Multi-Linear Regression Models
Malek Sarah, Jaouachi Boubaker, Khedher Faouzi, and Dominique Adolphe
This paper aims to provide rapid and precise methods to allow industrials to predict the amount of sewing thread needed to sew a garment using different lockstitches of class 300 (301, 301/301, 304, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, and 315). To avoid unused stocks for each stitch type, a sewing consumption value was determined using a geometrical method of different lockstitch shapes. Furthermore, the relationships between overall geometrical models of the studied lockstitches of class 300 were developed. Indeed, based on the geometrical model of lockstitch type 301, all theoretical models proposed were investigated and proved to be accurate. Moreover, referring to the findings, the prediction of the sewing thread consumption relative to each investigated lockstitch was proposed as a function of the studied input parameters. To improve the established models using geometrical technique, a statistical method was conducted. In addition, based on multi-linear regression, compared geometrical and statistical results were discussed and the coefficient R2 value was determined to evaluate the accuracy of the tested methods. By comparing the estimated thread consumption with the experimental ones, we concluded that the accuracy of the models is significant (R2 ranged from 93.91% to 99.10%), which encourages industrialists to use geometrical models to predict thread consumption. Therefore, the accuracy of prediction using the geometrical method is more accurate than the statistical method regarding the range of R2 (from 92.84% to 97.87%). To classify the significance of all studied parameters, their contributions to the sewing thread consumption behavior were analyzed in the experimental design of interest. It was concluded that the most important parameters affecting thread consumption are stitch width, stitch density, and the gap between two needles. The thickness of fabric has a low contribution to the thread consumption value, whereas the effect of yarn count can be neglected.
Electrospinning of Chitosan Biopolymer and Polyethylene Oxide Blends
Sandra Varnaitė-Žuravliova, Natalja Savest, Julija Baltušnikaitė-Guzaitienė, Aušra Abraitienė, and Andres Krumme
The objective of this study is to investigate the morphological (scanning electron microscopicy images), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry), and electrical (conductivity) properties and to carry out compositional analysis (Fourier-transform infrared) of produced nonwoven fibrous materials adapted in biomedical applications as scaffolds. The orientation of produced nanofilaments was also investigated because it is considered as one of the essential features of a perfect tissue scaffold. Viscosity and electrical conductivity of solutions, used in the manufacturing process, were also disassembled because these properties highly influence the morphological properties of produced nanofibers. The nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated via conventional electrospinning technique from biopolymer, synthetic polymer, and their blends. The chitosan (CS) was chosen as biopolymer and polyethylene oxide (PEO) of low molecular weight as synthetic polymer. Solutions from pure CS were unspinnable: beads instead of nanofibers were formed via spinning. The fabrication of pure PEO nanomats from solutions of 10 wt%, 15 wt%, and 20 wt% concentrations (in distilled water) turned out to be successful. The blending of composed CS solutions with PEO ones in ratios of 1:1 optimized the parameters of electrospinning process and provided the opportunity to fabricate CS/PEO blends nanofibers. The concentration of acetic acid (AA) used to dissolve CS finely spuninned the nanofibers from blended solutions and influenced the rate of crystallization of manufactured fiber mats. The concentration of PEO in solutions as well as viscosity of solutions also influenced the diameter and orientation of formed nanofibers. The beadless, highly oriented, and defect-free nanofibers from CS/PEO solutions with the highest concentration of PEO were successfully electrospinned. By varying the concentrations of AA and low molecular weight PEO, it is possible to fabricate beadless and highly oriented nanofiber scaffolds, which freely can found a place in medical applications.
Antibacterial Fibers Containing Nanosilica with Immobilized Silver Nanoparticles
Emilia Smiechowicz, Barbara Niekraszewicz, Marta Strzelinska, and Maria Zielecka
The main aim of the presented research was to obtain antibacterial fibers containing nanosilica with immobilized silver nanoparticles. The nanomodifier in an amount of 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 1,000 ppm, and 2,000 ppm were introduced into the cellulose fiber matrix during the cellulose dissolution process. In order to assess the influence of the nanomodifier's amount in the fiber on the antibacterial activity of modified fiber, a quantitative test of the antibacterial activity of the fibers was performed. The basic parameters of modified fibers, such as the mechanical and hygroscopic, were estimated. The size and shape of the nanomodifier in the selected fibers, as well as microanalysis of the polymer matrix, were examined. The investigations were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). The obtained results allowed the selection of optimal fibers with strong antibacterial properties that can be potentially used for personal protection or medical purposes.
Influence of Structural Parameters of Nonwoven Geotextiles on Separation and Filtration in Road Construction
Špela Bezgovšek, Dunja Šajn Gorjanc, Boštjan Pulko, and Stanislav Lenart
Nonwoven geotextiles are often used in road construction as a separation layer. They consist of the web of fibers with different orientations. The orientation of fibers has an important influence on physical and mechanical properties of nonwoven geotextiles. The production of nonwoven geotextiles is cheaper in comparison to woven or knitted fabrics which can also be used as separation geotextiles. The purpose of this research was to study the influence of structural properties of nonwoven geotextiles, namely the diameter of fibers and mass and thickness of nonwoven geotextiles, on their mechanical and hydraulic properties. Six types of nonwoven geotextiles were used in the research. They were produced by the drylaid process (carded) using mechanical bonding technique and also with the combination of mechanical and thermal bonding technique. The research confirmed that the bonding technique and structural properties significantly influence the separation and filtration properties of nonwoven geotextiles, such as opening size and water permeability. It was also found that there are no significant differences in mechanical properties, such as viscoelastic properties and compression creep, between the samples in the dry and wet conditions.
Optimization of Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Knitted Barrier Meshes
Zbigniew Mikołajczyk, Beata Szałek, and Katarzyna Pieklak
This article focuses on the analysis of mechanical properties of knitted barrier meshes and refers to general problems related to safety engineering. The conducted analysis of the effectiveness of absorbing impact energy by textile barriers, which positively affect the human body, clearly indicates the possibility of applying them in the field of road engineering as a new generation of road barriers. The characteristic features of the new generation of barriers are their openwork multiaxial structure based on various geometric shapes of the a-jour structure. Twenty models of barrier meshes with a-jour structure in the shape of tetragons (squares and diamonds), triangles, regular polygons (hexagons, octagons, and dodecagons), and circles were designed. Simulation research that aimed to optimize the structure of knitted openwork meshes to obtain minimum reduced stresses in strings, knots, and arms of the mesh was performed. The preferred solution is the four-axial eight-thread mesh with square-shaped a-jour structure with stress equal to Δб = 0.43 GPa/kg and the mesh with thickened diamond-shaped a-jour geometry with stress equal to Δб = 0.53 GPa/kg. Low stress values were also recorded for a four-axial six-thread mesh with square a-jour structure, for which Δб = 0.66 GPa/kg. The analyzed mesh models were implemented in the form of dozen designs of stitch constructions based on warp-knitting technology.
Influence of Ultraviolet Irradiation and Protease on Scale Structure of Alpaca Wool Fibers
Hua Wang, Farial Islam Farha, and Hafeezullah Memon
The present research aimed to explore the influence of different felt-proofing methods on alpaca fibers’ scale structure. Dyed alpaca fibers were exposed to a particular wavelength of ultraviolet (UV) light for different periods and treated with protease to analyze the felt property and compare with untreated fibers. Experimental results have shown that alpaca fibers have better shrinkage resistance and dyeability after being exposed to UV light, whereas no recognizable change was obtained on the surface of alpaca fibers’ scale structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In contrary, enzyme-treated alpaca fibers revealed improved dye rate and resistance to shrinkage. Especially, damaged scales on many areas of fiber surface were appeared by SEM, which indicates that UV may have a positive effect on enzyme treatment by damaging alpaca fibers’ surface structure and promoting the amount of protease going into the fibers’ inner layers. Therefore, eventually a better shrinkage resistance was obtained.
Influence of Woven Fabric Width and Human Body Types on the Fabric Efficiencies in the Apparel Manufacturing
Tayyab Naveed, Yueqi Zhong, Yu Zhicai, Muhammad Awais Naeem, Lu Kai, Xie Haoyang, Amjad Farooq, and Zamir Ahmed Abro
In the apparel manufacturing, the fabric is the single largest element in the cost of the garment. Therefore, effectual fabric consumption causes a reduction in cost and exertions. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of fabric width on the efficiency of marker (cutting) plans. Fabric consumption is in four types for human body shapes, that is, triangle, oval, square, and circle, in both genders to control the fabric utilization. Two clothing styles, fitted trousers and fitted shirts, are manufactured in an apparel manufacturing industry. The marker plans produced through Garment Gerber Technology software are accomplished in 36 different fabric widths (independent variables). The evaluation of dependent variables, that is, marker efficiency, marker loss, and fabric consumption efficiency relevant to four body shapes in variable fabric widths is analyzed for both women and men. The statistical analysis indicates that there is a linear relationship between marker efficiency and fabric width (sig <0.05). The regression analysis (p-value) between dependent variables and predictor variables (body types and fabric width) is also statistically significant. Also, the result implies that markers are more productive with larger fabric widths in all styles in both genders.
The Effect of Electric Field on Nanofibers Preparation in Cylindrical-Electrode-Assisted Solution Blowing Spinning
Wenxing Zheng, Wenyu Zheng, and Xinhou Wang
Cylindrical-electrode-assisted solution blowing spinning (CSBS) is a novel nanofiber preparation method. The electric field of CSBS not only is one of the main innovations of this technology but also plays a key role in the preparation of nanofibers. In this article, the electric field of CSBS and the influences of electric field on the preparation of nanofibers were studied systematically for the first time by simulations, theoretical analyses, and experiments. This paper innovatively established the coaxial capacitor model for studying the CSBS electric field. The effects of electric field on the preparation and morphology of CSBS nanofibers were theoretically investigated by using this model. The theoretical formulas that can express the relationships between the various electric field variables were obtained. The electric field strength distribution, voltage distribution, and the relationships between the electric field parameters of CSBS were obtained by finite element simulations. The simulations’ results show that reducing the diameter of cylinder (DC) or increasing the voltage increase the electric field strength of the jet surface. Experimental results reveal that increasing voltage or reducing DC can reduce the diameter of nanofibers. The experimental and simulation results prove the correctness of the theoretical research conclusions. The theoretical and simulation conclusions of this paper lay a theoretical foundation for further study of CSBS electric field. The experimental conclusions can directly guide the controllable preparation of CSBS nanofibers.
Antibacterial Effect of Graphene and Graphene Oxide as a Potential Material for Fiber Finishes
Anna Olborska, Anna Janas-Naze, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Tomasz Warga, and Dewi Suriyani Che Halin
The dynamic development of the world economy entails an increasing exchange of goods and population. This means that we are globally struggling with increasing levels of nosocomial infections. The increasing use of antimicrobial agents triggers the microorganisms’ immune system, which in turn contributes to the increasing amount of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, making it necessary to control the development of unwanted microorganisms, including bacteria, especially those carried on the body and clothing. Currently, there is no unique method to combat the multiplication of microorganisms and eliminate threats to human health and life. For this reason, this article describes the possibilities of using graphene materials as a potential additive materials in fiber finishes as an antibacterial aspect in various areas of life. However, the literature does not explain the mechanisms behind the antibacterial properties of graphene, strongly limiting its textile application. The research is conducted using molecular dynamic simulations of interaction between graphene materials and murein. The obtained results suggest the electrostatic mechanism of blocking the growth and division of bacteria. Due to the physical interaction, bacterial cell becomes “trapped” without changing its growth parameters. This may lead to an increase of internal cell pressure, rupture of its wall and consequently its death.
Investigation of the Influence of Technology Parameters and Thread Type on Embroidered Textile Element Quality
Virginija Daukantienė and Karolina Mikelionytė
Embroidery can be applied to improve esthetic or functional properties of products. However, the expected appearance of the original design may be discarded by unsuitable selected technological parameters of embroidery machine. Thus, the influence of the technological parameters and embroidery thread types on the embroidery geometric parameters and on tension characteristics of embroidery has been investigated in this research.
The research results revealed that the changes in geometry parameters of the designed digital image compared with the ones of actual embroidery samples are dependent on embroidery filling type, stitch density, and thread type. Mechanical testing of the embroidery elements has proved that embroidering influences the decrease in material breaking force and elongation at break compared with their initial tension characteristics.
Daukantienė, V., & Mikelionytė, K. (2020). Investigation of the Influence of Technology Parameters and Thread Type on Embroidered Textile Element Quality, Autex Research Journal, 20(4), 517-523. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/aut-2019-0046
The Hydrophobization of a Nanofiber Layer Using Low-Vacuum Plasma
Roman Knížek, Denisa Knížková, and Vladimír Bajzík
Nanofiber materials offer a wide range of use in various production fields, e.g., different types of filtration, or areas requiring high hydrostatic resistance. They are made from different polymers, some of which are more hydrophobic than others, for instance some types of polyurethanes and polyvinylidene fluoride. However, even these polyurethanes cannot guarantee a high hydrophobicity of the final nanofiber material. To increase this desired property, we have to use the so-called hydrophobic substances like fluorocarbon. The nanofiber layer has to be prepared so that its pores do not get blocked, which would worsen its filtration capability and air permeability. This is why a roll-to-roll low-vacuum plasma was used in our case for creating a fabric with nanofiber layer for the clothing industry. The result is a nanofiber material with a hydrostatic resistance higher than a 15,000 mm water column. Under suitable conditions, we can produce a nanofiber membrane for clothing with thermophysiological properties similar to those of membranes produced with different principles, e.g., nanoporous membranes. The nanofiber membrane provides us desirable properties such as stability during repeated washing.
Review of Printed Fabric Pattern Segmentation Analysis and Application
Charles Kumah, Rafiu King Raji, and Ruru Pan
Image processing of digital images is one of the essential categories of image transformation in the theory and practice of digital pattern analysis and computer vision. Automated pattern recognition systems are much needed in the textile industry more importantly when the quality control of products is a significant problem. The printed fabric pattern segmentation procedure is carried out since human interaction proves to be unsatisfactory and costly. Hence, to reduce the cost and wastage of time, automatic segmentation and pattern recognition are required. Several robust and efficient segmentation algorithms are established for pattern recognition. In this paper, different automated methods are presented to segregate printed patterns from textiles fabric. This has become necessary because quality product devoid of any disturbances is the ultimate aim of the textile printing industry.
Influence of Technology Process on Responsiveness of Footwear Nonwovens
Dunja Šajn Gorjanc, Ana Bras, and Boštjan Novak
Nonwovens represent a part of technical textiles that are used for clothing (“cloth tech”). Nonwovens are also used in the footwear industry mainly for functional purposes, where the aesthetic properties are not of great importance. They are mainly used for support and reinforcement of footwear. All three groups of textiles are used for footwear, i.e. woven fabrics, knitted fabrics and nonwovens that are produced directly from fibres, yarns or threads mainly from chemical fibres and in a small proportion from natural fibres.
Footwear textiles need to have good mechanical properties (at compressive loading), abrasion resistance, permeability properties and heat resistance. These properties are in close connection with the nonwoven structure or composite materials.
The basic intention of the presented research was to analyse the influence of the technology process on nonwovens for footwear responsiveness. Analysed footwear nonwovens in the presented research were on one side coated but on the other side consisted of a two-layer laminate. For this purpose, two different technological processes were used (coating and lamination). The results of the presented research showed that laminated samples express higher elastic recovery at compressive loading than coated samples. The treatment does not have an important influence on elastic recovery at compressive loading. Laminated samples express higher water permeability and lower absorption of water than coated samples, even after 24 hours of treatment in distilled water and compressive loading. The treatment of specimens in distilled water for 24 hours and compressive load of 789.6 N does not have an important influence on elastic recovery at compressive loading, water vapour permeability, air permeability and absorption of analysed samples. Air permeability could not be measured on coated samples.
Performance of Electrospun Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibrous Membrane in Air Filtration
Yuanxiang Xiao, Enlong Wen, Nazmus Sakib, Zhonghua Yue, Yan Wang, Si Cheng, Jiri Militky, Mohanapriya Venkataraman, and Guocheng Zhu
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes with fiber diameter from nanoscale to microscale were prepared by electrospinning. The structural parameters of PVDF fibrous membrane in terms of fiber diameter, pore size and its distribution, porosity or packing density, thickness, and areal weight were tested. The relationship between solution concentration and structural parameters of fibrous membrane was analyzed. The filtration performance of PVDF fibrous membrane in terms of air permeability and filtration efficiency was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the higher solution concentration led to a larger fiber diameter and higher areal weight of fibrous membrane. However, no regular change was found in thickness, porosity, or pore size of fibrous membrane under different solution concentrations. The air permeability and filtration efficiency of fibrous membrane had positive correlations with pore size. The experimental results of filtration efficiency were compared with the predicted values from current theoretical models based on single fiber filtration efficiency. However, the predicted values did not have a good agreement with experimental results since the fiber diameter was in nanoscale and the ratio of particle size to fiber diameter was much larger than the value that the theoretical model requires.