Liquid Moisture Transportation Properties of Functional Underwears: Part 1
This study investigates the effect of material composition on moisture management properties. Fiber type has significant influence on the moisture management properties of knitted fabrics. In this article, single jerseys knitted fabric samples with different yarn compositions were prepared. Liquid moisture transportation properties including wetting time, absorption rate, spreading speed, one-way transportation capability, and OMMC were evaluated by Moisture Management Tester (MMT) and vertical wicking was evaluated using thermography system and image analysis. Knitted sample having fine cotton yarns with coolmax and micro denier multifilament polypropylene showed best liquid transportation properties. There is a strong co-relation between OMMC and accumulative oneway transport index with vertical wicking of knitted samples.
A Comparative Study on Fabric Efficiencies for Different Human Body Shapes in the Apparel Industry
In the apparel manufacturing, fabric utilization always remains the significant apprehensions in controlling the production expenditure. Alteration in pattern shapes and marker preparation leads to the enormous utilization of fabric. The purpose of this research is to study fabric efficiency in correspondence with four different human body shapes in both genders. Two clothing styles, fitted trousers and fitted shirts, were processed conventionally in the garment manufacturing company. The comparative study of auto-marker and manual-marker making through Garment Gerber Technology (GGT) software were also accomplished. The evaluation of fabric consumptions, marker efficiency, marker loss, fabric loss, and fabric cost relevant to four different body shapes was analyzed for both women and men. The investigation carried out in this article concludes that there are differences in fabric consumptions, efficiencies, and cost-effectiveness relative to body shapes. The result revealed that the manualmarker of trousers for triangular body shape in women’s wears has the least fabric consumption (most cost-effective), whereas the shirt’s auto-marker for an oval body shape in men’s wears has the most fabric utilization (least costeffective). The manual-virtual-marker making is efficient (significant p-value) than auto-generated-markers. Also, fabric utilization for women’s garments is cost-effective than that for men. Trousers are cost-effective compared to the shirts.
The Analysis of Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Yarns Used for Manufacturing Hernia Meshes
The article presents a comparative analysis of the yarns used for manufacturing hernia meshes. For the analysis, two different linear masses, 46 dtex and 72 dtex, of transparent and dyed yarns were used; the dye used in the yarns was adequate for their intended use. The DSC tests showed the influence of thermal treatment on the change of thermal properties of the yarns. At the same time, it was proved that the aforementioned treatment had a bearing on the changes of crystallinity degree. All types of yarns were also subjected to physicochemical tests required for all the materials used for the production of hernia meshes.
Filtration Property of Monofilament Core–Shell Mesh Fabric Treated Via Tourmaline Hot Coating
In this study, woven fabrics with numerous electrostatic charges and desirable charge stability were investigated. A kind of core–shell monofilaments with different melting points between outer and inner layers were applied to wove the fabrics. These fabrics were hot coated through tourmaline particles as an charge enhancer at 122°C. Benefiting from the anions released by tourmaline particles and optimized content of the particles, the fabrics were endowed with surface potentials from −10 to −160 V and the voids content decreased from 45.4% to 41.2%, which contribute to the improvement in the filtration performance of the fabrics. A filtration mechanism was proposed while incremental surface charges with increasing tourmaline particles content have been confirmed through the noncontact measurement of electrostatic charges. The resultant fabrics exhibited a high filtration efficiency of 64.8% and superior long-term service performance. This study can provide a new application of the screen window for PM 2.5 governance.
Application of a Thermal Mannequin to the Assessment of the Heat Insulating Power of Protective Garments for Premature Babies
In this study, the new tool for measuring thermal insulating power of garments for premature babies under coupled heat and moisture transport was developed. The thermal mannequin corresponds to the body weight and size of a premature baby born in the thirty fourth week of pregnancy. The mannequin surface temperature can be set at various levels, while the heat loss is measured in W/m2. The mannequin is divided into eleven independent heating zones and seven independent zones of moisture evolution. The study also presents the test results of heat insulating power obtained for the newly developed garment set with commercially available garment set for babies, conducted under different climatic conditions. The results exhibit the advantage of the new material construction of the garment over the commercially available one.
Automatic Construction of Digital Woven Fabric by Using Sequential Yarn Images
In this article, a computerized method is proposed for simulating digital woven fabric (DWF) based on sequential yarn images captured from a moving yarn. A mathematical model of woven fabric structure is established by assuming that the crimped shape of yarns in weave structure is elastica, and the cross-sections of yarn in sequence image and fabric are circular and ellipse, respectively. The sequential yarn images, which are preprocessed and stitched first by image processing methods, are resized based on the mathematical model. Then a light intensity curve, which consists of radial curve model and axial curve model, is used to simulate the gray texture distribution of interlacing points in radial and axial directions. Finally, a Boole Matrix model is used to control the woven pattern. In the experiment, a slub yarn and a normal yarn samples with same count are applied to simulate gray texture fabrics. Then the gray fabrics are transformed to color fabrics based on three color maps. The fabric simulations are confined to single fabrics of plain, 2/2 matt, and 1/3 twill weaves.
Comparative Analysis of Peat Fibre Properties and Peat Fibre-Based Knits Flammability
A very promising cellulose-based natural fibre that is suitable for use in the textile industry is peat fibre. This fibre is a by-product of peat excavation, purified by separating it from other components. In this study, the morphological, chemical and mechanical properties of peat fibres as well as flammability of peat-based knitted fabrics were analysed. The average diameter of the peat fibres is ~60 μm, but it varies in very wide ranges – 25–150 μm; however, the number of fibres with diameter more than 100 μm is very low. As the peat fibre contains a high amount of lignin, lignin amount in the mixed peat/cotton yarn is relatively high too. Lignin is responsible for enhanced flame retardancy; therefore, time to ignition of the peat knit is ~30% higher than that of the cotton knit. Consequently, peat fibre can be used in the knitted structure in order to significantly reduce its flammability. In order to increase the flame retardancy, the knits have been treated by flame retardant in various concentrations. It was found that around the burned hole on the peat knit, treated by very low concentration flame retardant, forms charred area and the knit stops to burn even if the flame source is not removed.
Heat Storage and Release Characteristics of Ceramic-Imbedded Woven Fabric for Emotional Clothing
This study examined the heat storage and release characteristics of ZrC-imbedded woven fabrics by light emission and thermal manikin experiments. The surface temperature of the ZrC-imbedded fabric was higher than that of the regular PET fabric. Furthermore, the Clo values of both the total and torso of the ZrC-imbedded fabric by the thermal manikin experiment were higher than those of the regular PET fabric, which suggests that the heat release is caused by far infrared rays emitted from the ZrC particles imbedded in the yarns as they receive light. This was confirmed by the higher emissivity and emissive power of the ZrC-imbedded fabric. However, the tactile hand of the ZrC-imbedded fabric needs to be improved by adjusting the structural parameters of the fabric and finishing process factors.
Calculation and Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Lapping Angles in Tricot Warp Knitting
The lapping angle, which affects the style and quality of production, has been studied as a parameter of weft knitting. But the importance of the lapping angle has not been considered during the warp-knitting cycle. This paper shows that the lapping angle exists in the process of warp knitting and can be divided into horizontal and vertical lapping angles. Models for the lapping angles of closed and open loops were devised, and the lapping angles (horizontal and vertical lapping angles) of closed and open loops were calculated and analyzed. Furthermore, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that influence the lapping angle of tricot warp-knitted fabrics and summarize the rules. Moreover, the vertical lapping angle can affect the loop coverage. Results reveal that the decrease in number of underlaps and an increase in take-off density enables loops of the front guide bar to show on the face of the fabric. Moreover, it is also advantageous for an apparent front loop visibility when the front guide bar knits in open loop.
Zhang, L., Miao, X., & Wan, A. (2019). Calculation and Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Lapping Angles in Tricot Warp Knitting, Autex Research Journal, 19(2), 173-180. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2018-0045
Numerical Simulation of Flow Field in Air-Jet Loom Main Nozzle
To improve airflow injection capacity of the main nozzle and decrease backflow phenomenon, a new main nozzle structure with two throats is designed. Negative pressure value and negative pressure zone length are first proposed evaluating the strength of backflow phenomenon. Commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code “Fluent” is performed to simulate the flow field inside and outside the main nozzle. Exit velocity increases about 10 m/s in new main nozzle. Airflow core length of the new main nozzle is 35% higher than that of commonly used main nozzle. Smaller negative pressure value and shorter negative pressure zone length mean a weaker backflow phenomenon in the new main nozzle. Bigger air drag force indicates stronger weft insertion ability in the new main nozzle.
Multifunctional Finishing of Cotton Fabric
The research in textiles is being driven by ecology, economy, and functionality. Therefore, the present research is focused on the development of multifunctional textiles that consume minimum energy during their processing, eco-friendly chemicals for functionalization, and use short processing steps. Eco-friendly cross-linkers such as butanetetracarboxylic acid and zinc oxide nanoparticles are used to impart wrinkle recovery, antibacterial activity, ultraviolet (UV) protection, bending rigidity, and antistatic properties to cotton fabric just in one step. The treated fabric has been characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer. Wrinkle recovery, tear strength, antibacterial activity, UV protection, and antistatic properties were tested with AATCC 66-1990, ASTM D 1224, AATCC 147, AATCC 183, and UNI EN 1149, respectively. The treated fabric shows excellent functional properties up to 20 washing cycles.
Textile Fiber Identification Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Pattern Recognition
Fibers are raw materials used for manufacturing yarns and fabrics, and their properties are closely related to the performances of their derivatives. It is indispensable to implement fiber identification in analyzing textile raw materials. In this paper, seven common fibers, including cotton, tencel, wool, cashmere, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polylactic acid (PLA), and polypropylene (PP), were prepared. After analyzing the merits and demerits of the current methods used to identify fibers, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used owing to its significant superiorities, the foremost of which is it can capture the tiny information differences in chemical compositions and morphological features to display the characteristic spectral curve of each fiber. First, the fibers’ spectra were collected, and then, the relationships between the vibrations of characteristic chemical groups and the corresponding wavelengths were researched to organize a spectral information library that would be beneficial to achieve quick identification and classification. Finally, to achieve intelligent detection, pattern recognition approaches, including principal component analysis (PCA) (used to extract information of interest), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) (defined using two classifiers), assisted in accomplishing fiber identification. The experimental results – obtained by combining PCA and SIMCA – displayed that five of seven target fibers, namely, cotton, tencel, PP, PLA, and PET, were distributed with 100% recognition rate and 100% rejection rate, but wool and cashmere fibers yielded confusing results and led to relatively low recognition rate because of the high proportion of similarities between these two fibers. Therefore, the six spectral bands of interest unique to wool and cashmere fibers were selected, and the absorbance intensities were imported into the classifier LDA, where wool and cashmere were group-distributed in two different regions with 100% recognition rate. Consequently, the seven target fibers were accurately and quickly distinguished by the NIR method to guide the fiber identification of textile materials.