EFFECT OF PLASMA TREATMENT ON THE SPREADING OF MICRO DROPS THROUGH POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) AND POLYESTER (PET) FABRICS
Roger H. Wardman and Abdulalhameed Abdrabbo
School of Textiles & Design, Heriot-Watt University, Scottish Borders Campus, Netherdale, Galashiels, Scotland TD1 3HF, U.K.
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on two polyester fibre types, polylactic acid and standard polyester, and the influence on their respective wetting characteristics is investigated. A novel analytical system, based on image analysis, was developed for measuring the rate of spreading and dynamic movement of liquid over the fabrics. The techniques of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were utilized to examine the nature of the surface modifications after the plasma treatment. The analyses showed that the oxygen plasma treatment abraded the surface of the PLA fibres, but did not alter their chemical nature, whilst the surfaces of the PET fibres were less abraded, but had enhanced polarity due to an increase in carbonyl groups. The increased surface abrasion made little difference to the wetting or wicking rates of water on PLA fibres, but the increased polarity made a large difference to the rates on PET fibres.
FAST AND EFFICIENT SURFACE TREATMENT FOR NONWOVEN MATERIALS BY ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA
Riikka Väänänen1, Pirjo Heikkilä1*, Mikko Tuominen2, Jurkka Kuusipalo2 and Ali Harlin3
1Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Fibre Materials Science, P.O.Box 589, FIN-33101 Tampere, FINLAND
2TUT, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, FIN-33101 Tampere, FINLAND
3VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT, FINLAND *pirjo.heikkilä@tut.fi, Tel. +358 40 849 0908, Fax. +358 3 3115 2955
Plasma treatments can be used for the nano-scale surface modification of different materials including nonwovens. Penetration of plasma into solid matter is very limited, but it can penetrate into porous structures. Therefore plasma can be used to modify not only the outer surface, but also the surfaces of fibres within and the other side of the porous structure of nonwoven material. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of continuous atmospheric plasma treatment for the modification of porous nonwoven materials. Firstly, the penetration of plasma through layered, porous samples, and secondly, the effect of the plasma exposure time on the surface properties and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. We found that the plasma penetrated through three nonwoven layers. It also seemed that the plasma was retained inside the samples for a while after initial exposure, thus increasing the effective exposure time. An increase of exposure time further by controlling line speed did not have significant influence on the efficiency of the treatment. The mechanical properties of the material were not prominently affected by the treatment. Our results suggest that it is possible to conduct twosided plasma treatment on porous nonwoven materials as a continuous process with a speed feasible to be combined with conventional textile processing.
STUDY OF THE ABRASION RESISTANCE IN THE UPHOLSTERY OF AUTOMOBILE SEATS
Ivona Jerkovic1, Josep M. Pallares2, Xavier Capdevila3
1Engineer of Textile Technology, email@example.com,
2Certification director LEITAT (Laboratorio de Ensayos e Investigaciones Textiles del Acondicionamiento Terrasense), firstname.lastname@example.org,
3Professor DETIP (Departament d'Enginyeria Textil i Paperera de la Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya), email@example.com.
The automotive manufacturing industry is a key user of technical textiles. Cars consume a large amount of material, and the textiles are not an exception. The objective of this study is to compare four abrasion testers, which are used for the automobile sector. Previously the test parameters have been determined to make the most precise comparison, and four car seat upholstery structures have been compared. Martindale is the most complex abrasion tester: it generates a movement according to a curve of Lissajous and can test several samples simultaneously for a machine cycle; for this reason, it has been determined that part of the total results variations is attributable to the parameters of the used apparatus and tested structures as well.
DYEING NYLON WITH INDIGO IN VARIOUS PH REGIONS
Department Head (Textile Chemistry), University College of Textile Engineering & Technology, B.Z.U 60800- Multan, Punjab, PAKISTAN
Nylon (6.6) fabric was dyed with Indigo dye using an exhaust technique at different pH values. At different pH values different forms of indigo existed in solution, each one having a different substantivity for the fibre. The non-ionic form had the highest, whilst the Ionic ones had relatively less substantivity. The fibres could best be dyed in the acidic to slightly alkaline pH range. The Chemistry of the dyebath and fibre were considered, in order to explain the effect of pH on colour strength. Hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions seemed to be the main reason for the exhaustion of dye onto nylon fibre. Hydrogen bonding occurred between the hydroxyl groups and amide groups, while ionic interactions worked at low pH values between the ionized and end-amino groups of the dye and fibre respectively.
IMAGES OF CORONA DISCHARGES IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AS A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS FOR RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF TEXTILES ON IMAGES OF CORONA DISCHARGES IN TEXTILES
Izabela Luiza Ciesielska - Wróbel1 , Iwona Szadkowska2 , Józef Masajtis1 , Jan Henryk Goch3
1Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Faculty of Material Engineering and Pattern Designing, Technical University of Lodz, Poland
2Department of Internal Diseases and Cardiological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
3Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, The S. Sterling University Hospital in Lodz, Poland
Corresponding author: e-mail: Iza.Ciesielska@poczta.fm
Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess changes in images of corona discharges (ICD) in patients with cardiovascular diseases A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by gases surrounding a conductor - animate or inanimate objects. Methods: The study population of 126 persons (81 men and 45 women) was divided into two groups: the study group consisted of 96 patients with coronary heart disease and the control group composed of 30 healthy persons. The study methods included recording of corona discharges of fingertips of both hands by using the Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) Camera and analyzing changes in images of corona discharges dependent on conditions of medical examinations of patients, their frame of mind, age, gender, heart rate, blood pressure, serum potassium concentration, and the course of coronary heart disease. Results: Age, gender, temperature in examination rooms as well as frame of mind of the study population exerted a similar effect on ICD in both groups. Heart rate, blood pressure and the pattern of coronary heart disease exerted varied effects on the patients' ICD parameters in the study group. Conclusions: The analysis of changes in ICD may be a source of information about the effect of physiological and pathophysiological changes in the human health state, physical as well as mental.
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: REUSABLE DIAPER
Pinkie E. Zwane
Head of Consumer Sciences Department, University of Swaziland (UNISWA) Textiles Apparel Design and Management, P.O. Luyengo Swaziland, Southern Africa E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Product development is usually a response to an existing problem in a product, or it is identifying users' needs in order to ameliorate the living conditions of people or to enhance life in general. Some patients with certain ailments and geriatrics in general usually have an incontinence problem. Disposable products are available at relatively expensive price and not easily available for certain people or for financially marginalized people, and yet there is need for these products. This research was done to develop an affordable, re-usable product for adults who have an incontinence challenge. Terry cloth was used as an absorbent fabric for the future product and three water repellent fabrics were tested for water repellency and bleaching, prior to designing and evaluating the product. All three fabrics were water repellent and only one was resistant to chlorine bleach used in the development of this product. The chlorine resistant fabric was used in constructing the adult washable nappy. When the prototype was evaluated from user trials, it received approval when used with durable laundry gloves and machine washed. Generally, the design was approved for use by individuals with an incontinence problem and thus recommended for public use.
COMPARISON BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FABRICS WOVEN FROM COMPACT AND RING SPUN YARNS
Alsaid. A. Almetwally and Mona. M. Salem
Textile Division, National Research Centre, Egypt
Due to the elimination of spinning triangle in compact spun yarns, its mechanical and physical properties differ significantly from ring spun yarns. The difference between the two spun yarns is reflected in the properties of fabrics woven from both. This study is aimed to compare the mechanical properties of fabrics which are produced from yarns spun from 100% Egyptian cotton, Giza 86 on these systems. Statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant difference between both type of fabrics regarding tear strength and abrasion resistance. But in relation to tensile strength, air permeability and stiffness, compact fabrics were superior to ring fabrics.