Fuzzy Logic Method for Predicting the Effect of Main Fabric Parameters Influencing Drape Phenomenon
Thouraya Hamdi, Adel Ghith, and Faten Fayala
The main aspect of this research was to predict the drape parameters and describe clearly the drape phenomenon using fuzzy logic method. Forecasting features allow manufacturers to save time and improve their productivity. The bending rigidity, (in warp, weft, and skew direction), shear rigidity, and weight of fabric samples were used as the key input variables for the model, whereas drape coefficient, drape distance ratio, folds depth index, and node number were used as output/response variables. The results show that changing the values of fabric parameters significantly affected the fabric drape and a representative correlation values were found between the experimental values and those calculated by the fuzzy system.
The Study on Effects of Walking on the Thermal Properties of Clothing and Subjective Comfort
Ivana Špelić, Dubravko Rogale, and Alka Mihelić Bogdanić
Former studies done by other authors investigated the first- and second-layered air gaps beneath the clothing garments. None of the previous studies reported multidisciplinary clothing design testing approach linking both the objective measuring methods and subjective responses, while testing the thermal properties linked to a microclimatic volume formed between the layers of garments forming the ensemble. Neither was determined the limiting value of the microclimatic volume for outerwear garments, after which the thermal insulation will start to decrease due to convection. By taking the advantage of the precise three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technology and reverse engineering 3D CAD tool, the volume of the microclimatic air layers formed under outerwear garments was determined to study the impact of the ensemble’s microclimatic volume on the overall insulation value, measured by means of the thermal manikin. The jacket with the smaller microclimatic volume provided 5.2–13.5% less insulation than wider jackets, while the ensembles with tighter jackets showed 0.74–1.9% less insulation in static and 0.9–2.7% more insulation in dynamic conditions, thus proving that the limiting value of the microclimatic volume is greater than previously reported for three-layered ensembles. The effective thermal insulation value was reduced in average by 20.98–25.34% between standing and moving manikins. The thermal manikins are designed for steady-state measurements and do not work well under transient conditions, so three human subjects were employed as evaluators of the clothing thermal quality. In cooler climatic conditions, the measured physiological parameters and subjects’ grades pointed to discomfort while wearing ensembles with tighter jackets.
A Study on Improving Dyeability of Polyester Fabric Using Lipase Enzyme
Jeyaraman Anandha Kumar and M. Senthil Kumar
The Impact and Importance of Fabric Image Preprocessing for the New Method of Individual Inter-Thread Pores Detection
The paper describes the impact and importance of preprocessing methods of fabric image for detection of inter-thread pores (ITP), which is a new method of individual ITP identification. The aim of this experiment is to identify precisely every individual ITP of fabric structure by using optimal preprocessing algorithm for further quantitative, morphometric structural analysis of specialized fabrics (barriers, industrial filters, composites, others) in context of air permeability, flow resistance, UV radiation, viruses penetration, thermal comfort by estimation fabric porosity, especially macroporosity parameters and cover factor. The correct identification of individual ITP depends on the acquisition method and the preprocessing algorithm. It was conducted by analyzing the adaptation of digital image preprocessing methods for two structures of plain weave fabric in two magnification zooms, 1.25 and 0.8. Preprocessing operations were performed in the area of spatial operations of the image. The optimal preprocessing algorithm includes low-pass filtering, histogram equalization, nonlinear filtering, thresholding, and morphological operation. This algorithm was selected based on the factors developed by the author (ITP detection, RID factor—a difference between the real and model ITP areas) which rely on the ITP size, shape, and location. The graphic view of the ITP contour position on the fabric image is a verification element in the optimal preprocessing algorithm. The presented results of the air permeability of two different plain weave structures confirm the need to optimize the algorithm of pre-image processing methods to precisely detect each individual ITP in the fabric image.
Influence of Tensile Stress on Woven Compression Bandage Structure and Porosity
Abdelhamid R.R. Aboalasaad, Brigita Kolčavová Sirková, and Zuhaib Ahmad
Woven compression bandage (CB) is one of the elastic textiles that exert pressure on muscles. With a defined tensile strength, it is possible to create the required compression on the given body parts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between woven fabric deformation, porosity, and tensile stress properties of three main types of woven CBs. All bandage samples are applied on human leg using two- and three-layer bandaging techniques. Bandage porosity is calculated for all frames at different weave angles using NIS software. Woven bandage construction parameters which are given by the preparation of warp and weft yarns, twist, count, and density along with woven fabric weave, type of weaving, and finishing process are the main factors that influence the bandage properties. Several methods considering thread distributions have been developed to determine the woven fabric's porosity during the tensile stress. Experimental results confirm that bandage porosity is directly proportional to the bandage extension and weave angle that ranges from 44° to 90°. The novelty of candidate study is to introduce practical remarks to the patient for optimizing the required bandage pressure by suitable extension or applied tension or weave angle for two- and three-layer bandaging systems.
Application of Silica Aerogel in Composites Protecting Against Thermal Radiation
Sylwia Krzemińska, Małgorzata Cieślak, Irena Kamińska, and Alicja Nejman
Aerogels are characterized by excellent insulation properties and a good resistance to high and low temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of silica aerogel on thermal properties of textile–polymer composites. Aerogel was applied in protective clothing fabric to improve its heat resistance. The composites were produced by coating a fabric made of meta-aramid (polyamide–imide) yarns with a dispersion of polychloroprene latex and synthetic resins or an acrylic–styrene dispersion with aerogel (100–700 μm particle size). The composites were subjected to thermal radiation (20 kW/m2) and their thermal properties were determined by thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to characterize the microstructure and study the elemental composition of materials. The thermal conductivity and resistance of composites were measured with an Alambeta apparatus. The tests indicated an increase in resistance to thermal radiation by approximately 15–25%. In TG/DTG analysis, the initial temperature for an unmodified fabric was 423.3°C. After modification, it decreased to 361.8° and 365.3°C for composites with 7 and 14% of aerogel, respectively. SEM images revealed a reduction in aerogel particle size.
Multicriteria Decision-Making in Complex Quality Evaluation of Ladies Dress Material
Srabani Misra, Jana Salacova, and Jiri Militky
Quality is the essence of any product for consumer satisfaction. However, different people have different perception of quality. Eventually the definition of quality varies from product to product and thus it is much more complex in textile clothing material evaluation. The end use application of a specific clothing material determines what should be the parameters of quality evaluation. Thus, the evaluation based on subjective assessment becomes unpredictable and unquantifiable. Quality for dress materials is not simply a physical parameter but something called as psycho-physical parameter. In recent times, many objective evaluation systems have been developed to evaluate the apparel grade textile materials with regard to their quality parameters. However, the evaluation does not involve enough statistical treatment of data so as to obtain a parametric weighted characterization of complex quality. The current work deals with parametric approach to complex quality evaluation based on multicriteria decision-making approach for ladies dress materials. The ladies dress materials are of numerous varieties and choices across the globe. The selection and marketing of these kinds of textile materials need to be given proper emphasis as it depends not only on physical parameters but also on climate, geography, ethnic group, market trend, age group, gender, and many such complex parameters, which are not quantifiable in absolute terms. In this study, woven fabrics used for ladies dress materials are collected from the market and they were evaluated for the consumer-oriented property parameters. A parametric approach is adopted to quantify the overall quality of these dress materials. Various objective techniques were used to evaluate the comfort and esthetic parameters. A complex quality index (CQI) was estimated with weighted combination of all the contributing parameters and total quality index was calculated. Selected consumers with different education level, age, and gender were interviewed to get a statistic of their opinion about quality parameters preferred by them. This complex quality index/degree of satisfaction shows very high correlation with subjective judgment. A CQI can be evaluated for each kind of clothing material looking into their applications.
A Study of the Consumption of Sewing Threads for Women
Brahem Mariem, Messaoudi Wissal, Khedher Faouzi, Jaouachi Boubaker and Dominique Adolphe
The article evaluates the amount of the consumed sewing thread for women's underwear (underwear bras and panties). Based on the obtained findings, it was concluded that sewing thread amount depends enormously on the studied influential parameters. The present paper reports a contribution that allows industries and researchers to decrease the consumed amounts of sewing thread in case of women's underwear and panties The study takes into account the different stitch structures and fabric characteristics that are usually used. The effects of influential input parameters, such as fabric thickness, number of assembled layers, stitch density, and tension of the thread, are investigated. Useful models have been found and can be used by industries to accuracy predict the thread consumption for women's underwear and panties to launch the needed thread commands. The developed models use multiregressive method. In this study, the fabrics that have been considered are knitted fabrics because they are those used in women's underwear. We found that women's underwear bras consume more sewing threads than panties. Using linear regression method, good relationships (coefficients of correlation close to 1) between consumption behaviors and the investigated parameters such as fabric thickness, number of assembled layers, stitch number per centimeter, sizes and tension of threads, were found. Although, the increase of threads tension to sew female underwear decreases the consumed amount of threads, the increase of other studied parameters widely encourages the consumption values, especially for seams based on chain-stitch types.
Study of the Properties and Cells Growth on Antibacterial Electrospun Polycaprolactone/Cefuroxime Scaffolds
Budimir Mijovic, Emilija Zdraveva, Emi Govorčin Bajsić, Igor Slivac, Iva Dekaris, Tamara Holjevac Grgurić, and Tea Zubin Ferri
Electrospun materials are good candidates for the design of tissue regeneration scaffolds as they can simulate the natural surroundings of tissue cells. The study proposes electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/cefuroxime (CFU) scaffolds for human cell culture and investigates the influence of the antibiotic content on scaffold morphology, thermal and mechanical properties. The increase in the CFU concentration resulted in the reduction of fiber diameter and number of deformations. It also influenced the reduction of scaffold thermal enthalpies and improved scaffold break strength. With regard to cell growth, the scaffolds showed precedence in greater colonization of the HeLa cells. Finally, these scaffolds showed compatibility with standard human cell lines, and thus they can be used for the repair of damaged tissues.
How High-Loft Textile Thermal Insulation Properties Depend on Compressibility
Viera Glombikova, Petra Komarkova, Eva Hercikova, and Antonin Havelka
This paper investigates the performance of high-loft thermal insulations in terms of their compression properties, recovery behavior and thermal resistance. The aforementioned properties belong to the basic producer requirements for winter functional sportswear, sleeping bags or blankets. Majority of thermal insulation producers declare high quality of their products claiming durability and insulation within beginning of their application. But, it is important to uncover how dynamic compressive loading (which simulates real condition of using) influences heat transport of tested filling for the whole lifetime period. Therefore, two groups of top synthetic thermal insulation materials were tested before and after compression loading. Subsequently, relaxation behavior of samples was determined by thickness recovery after the compression test. Furthermore, thermal resistance was measured before and after the compression test to find out the change in thermal effectivity of samples. In summary, these results have not met expectations and show a rather poor correlation between the rate of compression after dynamic loading and the drop of thermal resistance of tested fillings.
Lyocell Fabric Dyed with Natural Dye Extracted from Marigold Flower Using Metallic Salts
Sayed Yaseen Rashdi, Tayyab Naveed, Noor Sanbhal, Sikandar Almani, Peng Lin, and Wang Wei
The application of natural dyes is increasing each year due to their environmental friendliness and easy application on cellulose fibers. In this study, the natural dye from the Mexican marigold flower was extracted using a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The extracted natural dye was applied on lyocell fabric with five different metallic salts using pre-mordanting and post-mordanting methods. It was observed that different color shade depth was achieved with different fixing agents. The color shade depth (K/S) washing fastness, light fastness, rubbing fastness, perspiration, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) test results of all dyed samples were excellent in both pre- and post-mordanting methods. There was no significant difference in the results between post- and pre-mordanting fixation methods. However, the results showed that mordant ferrous sulfate had higher K/S value as compared to all other mordants. The dye extracted from marigold flower showed good dyeing efficiency with mordant to excellent colorfastness tests. FTIR results showed that there was no structural change in lyocell fabrics, before and after dyeing processes. Thus, a natural dye extracted from marigold flower has shown good colorfastness properties without damaging its fiber structure.
Evolution of Physicochemical Structure of Waste Cotton Fiber (Hydrochar) During Hydrothermal Carbonation
Shi Sheng, Zhang Meiling, Zhang Suying, Hou Wensheng, and Yan Zhifeng
To study the hydrothermal behavior of cotton fiber, the carbonization process and structural evolution of discarded or waste cotton fiber (WCF) under hydrothermal conditions were investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and glucose was used as a model compound. Results showed that high temperature was beneficial for the hydrolysis of discarded cotton fiber, and the yield of sugar was 4.5%, which was lower than that of MCC (6.51%). WCF and MCC were carbonized at 240–~260°C and 220–~240°C, respectively, whereas the carbonization temperature of glucose was lower than 220°C. The C/O ratios of WCF and glucose hydrothermal products were 5.79 and 5.85, respectively. The three kinds of hydrothermal carbonization products had similar crystal structures and oxygen-containing functional groups. The carbonized products of WCF contained many irregular particles, while the main products of glucose carbonization were 0.5-mm-sized carbon microspheres (CMSs). Results showed that glucose was an important intermediate in WCF carbonization and that there were two main pathways of hydrothermal carbonization of cotton fibers: some cotton fibers were completely hydrolyzed into glucose accompanied by nucleation and then the growth of CMSs. For the other part, the glucose ring of the oligosaccharide, formed by the incomplete hydrolysis of cotton fibers under hydrothermal conditions of high temperature and pressure, breaks and then forms particulate matter.
Analysis of the Thermal Insulation of Textiles Using Thermography and CFD Simulation Based on Micro-CT Models
Adam K. Puszkarz, Jarosław Wojciechowski, and Izabella Krucińska
The article presents the results of an attempt to use high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to model the thermal insulation of clothing as one of the most important parameters affecting the heat balance between a human and his/her surroundings. Cotton knitted fabric applied in functional clothing for newborns and aramid woven fabric used in multilayer protective clothing for firefighters were the tested materials. The 3D models of real textiles based on micro-CT images were developed. Next, the models were applied to heat transfer simulations using the finite volume method. The usefulness of the models was experimentally verified using thermography with real textiles. The simulation results were consistent with the measurement results and confirmed the relationship between the thermal insulation and geometry of the textiles on the one hand and the physical parameters of the raw materials from which they were made on the other hand.
Circular Fashion – Consumers’ Attitudes in Cross-National Study: Poland and Canada
Malgorzata Koszewska, Osmud Rahman, and Blazej Dyczewski
The limits of the present linear economy model (take-make-waste) are well illustrated by the textile and clothing sector, one of the most indispensable consumer goods industries. Although a huge increase in the number of publications on the circular economy can be observed, the number of papers analyzing consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward circular fashion, especially the ones comparing consumers from different regions, is still limited. The article aimed to assess consumers’ attitudes toward circular fashion and draw a cross country comparison in this respect. The research focused on the three pillars of the latest EU Sustainable Product Policy Framework, i.e., designing sustainable products, empowering consumers, and circularity in production processes. An online survey and convenience sampling were used to collect valid responses from two countries (i.e., Canada and Poland) with different cultures, levels of economic development, and approaches to environmental and social issues. The results showed that significant differences between the countries emerged to a greater extent regarding consumers’ attitudes toward environmental labels for fashion products and sustainable buying behavior. The Polish respondents perceived the need for such labels to a greater extent. The Canadian ones, on the other hand, turned out to be more willing to choose sustainable clothing and reduce consumption. The differences between the countries were much less conspicuous as regards circular cues and circularity in fashion production processes. They appeared only in the case of clothing durability and the impact of production processes on air quality. Those aspects turned out to be more important for Polish respondents.