The Use of New Technologies for the Development of Protective Clothing: Comparative Analysis of Body Dimensions of Static and Dynamic Postures and its Application
In this research, the use of new technologies for the development of special protective overall for sport aircraft pilots was studied, with a focus on a comparative analysis of the static and dynamic body postures’ dimensions, intended for the development of the overall’s pattern design. For this purpose, digitalization of five male persons was carried out with the 3D human body scanner Vitus Smart by using 3D printed markers, precisely positioned on defined body locations, intended for exact measurement of body dimensions. Male persons, aged between 19 and 35 years with the same athletic body type and different body heights and body mass indexes (BMIs), were scanned in a standard static standing body posture and three dynamic body postures. A comparative analysis between the static and dynamic body postures was carried out. Based on the established body dimensions and girth dimensions of the 3D body model with 3D-modeled compression elements, made-to-measure construction of the overall pattern design was carried out. The function of these compression elements is redistribution of the blood from the lower extremities to the upper body parts at the appearance of high g-forces. Therefore, increased girth dimensions due to the use of compression elements were applied in the overall development process as construction measures with needed ease allowances. The functionality of the developed special protective overall was explored on the scanned 3D body model with 3D-modeled compression elements in a real sitting posture of the sport aircraft pilot in a cab by using virtual prototyping. The virtual simulation technology showed that a well-fitted protective overall for sport aircraft pilots can be developed by using a 3D scanned body model of a person in a sitting posture and its 3D body dimensions.
Method for Introducing Zeolites and MCM-41 into Polypropylene Melt-Blown Nonwovens
In this work, a method for introducing zeolites and mesoporous siliceous materials into the melt-blown process for the production of polypropylene nonwovens was developed and the functional materials obtained were tested. Both types of additives were introduced in the melt-blown technology using a device placed in the duct of the die assembly. Nine types of polypropylene melt-blown nonwovens were made with different types of zeolites (clinoptilolite, Na-X, Na-A, Na-P1, sodalite, Na-P1 with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA), ZeoEco 20, and BioZeo R.01) or mesoporous silica material (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41, abbreviated as MCM-41). The nonwovens were studied in terms of protective and functional parameters: sodium chloride and paraffin oil mist aerosol penetration, airflow resistance, and sorption capacity for toluene, ammonia, acetone, and cyclohexane, in accordance with the requirements of the European standards concerning respiratory protective equipment. The tests showed that zeolites and MCM-41 can be successfully incorporated within the structure of elementary polymer fibers using an environmentally friendly “dry” melt-blown technology with nonwovens modified so as to impart multiple functionalities in one integrated technological process. The developed method of introducing the studied materials to polypropylene melt-blown nonwovens led to the production of new multipurpose materials with good protective and functional properties. The best polypropylene nonwovens were produced with the addition of 250 g/m2 of MCM-41 or Na-P1 zeolite modified with HDTMA.
Investigation of the Effects of Different Bias Angles of Stitching on Seam Performance of Wool Suits
Wool suits are always preferred due to their warmth retention in cool weather, comfort, and aesthetic features. Seams are very important for the quality of wool suits. The tensile characteristics of seamed fabric change with the change of fabric bias angle. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different seam angles with various stitch densities on the seam strength and the seam breaking extension of wool suit stitches. In this study, seam strength and seam-breaking elongation at different bias angles were investigated for the stitches of trousers and jackets of wool suits. As is known, in the production of trousers and jackets, the seams are applied not only in the direction of the weft and warp but also in the different bias angles at the crotch area and arm hole seams. Six wool fabrics with different structural properties were chosen as experimental samples. Fabrics were cut at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° angles and then sewn with three different stitch densities (3, 4, and 5 stitches/cm), with lockstitch stitch type for each fabric angle. Therefore, 90 differently seamed fabric samples were prepared. The results indicated that seams prepared with 0°,45° and 90° bias angles give the highest seam strength and that 30°, 45°, and 60° bias angles give the highest seam-breaking elongation values all over the samples. Seams prepared with 30° and 60° bias angles give the lowest seam strength, and 0° and 90° bias angles give the lowest seam-breaking elongation values all over the samples.
Workplace Survey of Cold Protective Glove Aging
This study presents the results of an end-of-service life survey involving workers operating in cold environments. The objective of this study was to determine whether the gloves worn in such workplaces were replaced when they exhibited clear signs of mechanical deterioration (rupture, tear, puncture, and perforation) or when they were soaked (externally) or moist (internally). The study sets out to establish whether the appearance of visible signs of damage prompted immediate glove replacement with a view to occupational safety. The calculated Cramér’s V values revealed weak associations between the cause of glove replacement and the frequency of glove change (V=0.201) as well as the mean duration of glove use (V=0.234). Furthermore, it was found that visible signs of mechanical deterioration did not prompt glove replacement. Indeed, workers continued to wear damaged or wet gloves for as many as 5 days or more.
Sewability (Based on Needle Penetration Force) of 1 × 1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Produced with Separate Ends of Yarns
Needle penetration force (NPF) is one of the main factors, which is used to determine fabric sewability. In this study, it was aimed to investigate sewability (based on NPF) of 1 × 1 rib knitted fabrics, which were produced by the separate ends of yarns. 18 types of fabrics were knitted with Ne 30/1 yarns with variations of stitch density and number of separate ends, whereas the other parameters were constant. Sewability tests were applied to fabrics after pretreatment and relaxation procedures by using the L&M sewability tester. As a result, it was seen that the number of separate ends and the stitch density have influence on the needle penetration values of 1 × 1 rib knitted fabrics.
Technological Development of a Yarn Grip System for High-Speed Tensile Testing of High-Performance Fibers
Particularly in terms of carbon fiber (CF) rovings and further high performance fibers, it is a highly demanding task to clamp technical yarns with low elongations at break during high-speed tensile tests due to their sensitivity to shear stress. For fibers to be tested, a low elongation at break results in short testing times and requires high acceleration. In this paper, four different yarn grips that can be applied with various test machines will be introduced and compared to a wedge screw grip. By using most sensitive CF rovings, advantages and disadvantages of these gripping devices will be qualitatively evaluated by means of testing machines with test speeds of up to 20 m/s and strain rates of up to 200 s−1, respectively. Hence, the reproducibility and precision of test results were considerably enhanced by optimizing the geometry and mass of yarn grips. Moreover, theoretical approaches and calculations for the design of yarn grips suitable for test speeds of up to 100 m/s will be presented.
Sustainable Improvements for Customized Platform Effectiveness in Garment Production
This study uses sustainable development theory to analyze China’s garment industry, which has been under pressure of high energy consumption, excess capacity and environmental pollution. The purpose of this work is to explore customized platform effectiveness on fashion design and production by the integration of clothing ceo-design (CED) and clothing life cycle evaluation. By cooperation and data analyses, garment companies come into being, which provides information for the study on customized platform effectiveness. Meanwhile, this paper begins with addressing the potential problems for fashion design, production and inventory management, making a distinction between garment virtual design (GVD)and personalized garment customization (PGC) and suggesting a useful computer-aided approach for fashion design and production process. The data and information were gathered from garment companies in China. This work presents the findings from case study research into sustainable improvements for fashion design and production in the garment industry; in this way, the level of customized platform may be compared and analyzed, which is a significant growth point of sustainable improvements for this research and practice domain.
A Public Fabric Database for Defect Detection Methods and Results
The use of image processing for the detection and classification of defects has been a reality for some time in science and industry. New methods are continually being presented to improve every aspect of this process. However, these new approaches are applied to a small, private collection of images, which makes a real comparative study of these methods very difficult. The objective of this paper was to compile a public annotated benchmark, that is, an extensive set of images with and without defects, and make these public, to enable the direct comparison of detection and classification methods. Moreover, different methods are reviewed and one of these is applied to the set of images; the results of which are also presented in this paper.
Changes in the Characteristic Impedance of Textile Signal Lines While Mechanically Loaded
The paper presents studies over the changes in the characteristic impedance of selected type of textile signal lines (TSLs) during mechanical loads. The article describes the construction of tested lines, the measurement method, and statistical analysis of the collected results.
Three-Dimensional Deformation of Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabrics Under Tensile Loading
This paper puts forward a new method for measuring the three-dimensional deformation of warp-knitted spacer fabrics under tensile stress. The three-dimensional deformation mechanisms of warp-knitted spacer fabrics have been analyzed using stress–strain curves. Poisson’s ratio of the three-dimensional deformation has also been analyzed. The stress–strain curves obtained for tests in the warp-ward direction and weft-ward direction show a characteristic initial large deformation, followed by minimal-to-no deformation. The stress–strain curves obtained for tests in the thickness direction exhibit different characteristics due to the differences in stretch directions. In the weft-ward direction, the curve shows an approximate linear change with minimal strain. In the warp-wise direction, the curve shows a large stress with small strain, and subsequently, a small stress yielded a large strain. During the stretching process, the surface deformation perpendicular to the direction of tensile force is greater than the tensile deformation, and the deformation in the thickness direction is also minimal compared to that in the direction of the tensile deformation.
Interrelation Between Tensile Properties of Yarns and Woven Fabrics with These Yarns
The main parameters of tensile tests for fabrics and yarns are the breaking force and the elongation at break. The aim of this investigation was to find the relation between the tensile properties of yarns and woven fabrics for different natural raw materials. Manmade bamboo, natural single flax, blended plied flax and natural silk yarns, plied combed cotton yarns, blended plied cotton, and polyester yarns were used for the research. The warp of almost all fabrics, except of one fabric, was from flax. This fabric was woven using blended flax and silk yarns in the warp. Weft yarns were more various – yarns of one kind were used in the weft for certain fabrics; yarns of two kinds were used in 1:1 repeats in other fabrics. It was established that the breaking force for both woven fabrics and yarns increases when the elongation at break increases. The relationships between the tensile parameters of yarns and woven fabrics were established. The results showed weak dependence between the tensile parameters of yarns and fabrics because the coefficients of determination of the dependences are small.
Attitudes of Young European Consumers Toward Recycling Campaigns of Textile Companies
The aim of this article was to identify the attitudes of young consumers in Europe toward recycling campaigns of clothing companies. In the article, the results of own empirical research conducted among young consumers from Poland, France, and Spain in the fourth quarter of 2017 are presented. Recycling campaigns implemented by fashion brands, consisting of exchanging old cloths for discount vouchers, are an example of environmentally friendly innovations and fit into the concept of circular economy. The research results confirmed a minor engagement of young consumers in recycling campaigns of clothing companies. However, they declared the willingness to participate in such actions. According to the authors, an effective marketing communication strategy is fundamental to engage young consumers in clothing recycling and develop sustainable forms of clothing disposal. Clothing companies that are perceived as supporting the environment have a chance to reinforce the brand image.