Mathematical Modelling of the Heald Shaft

1 / Šimon Kovář1 / Josef Skřivánek1

1Department of Textile Machine Design of Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic, Studentska 2, +420 48 5353174

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 175–181, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2015-0041, December 2016


The manufacturers of weaving equipment recently endeavour to minimise the necessary designing plays in the weaving loom mechanisms. One of the mechanisms most exposed to stress is the shedding motion that defines the held-shaft stroke. Its end part is the heald shaft. The heald shaft constitutes a problematic assembly of the shedding motion. The design employed presently is characterised by dynamic impact loading caused by designing play in the suspension of healds into the heald shaft. During weaving cycle, the healds fly between the main beams of the heald shaft, producing a considerable force pulse. This paper is concerned with the description of dynamic behaviour of the existing design on the basis of mathematical modelling and verification of obtained results by means of experimental analysis.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Experimental Analysis of the Tensile Properties of Painting Canvas

1 / Diana Šimić Penava2 / Marijana Tkalec1

1 University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Prilaz b. Filipovića 28a, Zagreb, Croatia

2 University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Kačićeva 26, Zagreb, Croatia

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 182–195, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2015-0023, December 2016


In this paper, the practical application of uniaxial testing of painting canvas for determining its mechanical properties is presented. Painting canvases have a complex composite structure whose mechanical properties are considerably improved in relation with the initial basic material. Painting canvas or coated fabrics are obtained by applying a certain number of coatings to raw fabrics. Experimental testing and determining mechanical properties of painting canvas under tensile force at different angles in relation to the weft direction are discussed in the paper. The fabrics were tested before coating, as well as after one, two and three coatings. The values of tensile force in relation to relative extension of coated textiles were measured, as well as breaking force values, elongation at break, contraction at break, work to rupture. Based on the experimentally obtained values, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and the level of anisotropy of the coated textile materials were calculated. The experimental results demonstrate the applicability of theoretical formulae. The number of coated layers on the raw fabric exerts a significant impact on the Poisson’s ratio. The values of breaking force, elongation at break, work to rupture and modulus of elasticity increase with an increase in the number of coated layers, and at the same time coefficient of anisotropy decrease. It has been shown that by increasing the number of coated layers in a coated material, its anisotropic properties decrease, while isotropic properties increase. With an increase in the number of coatings, the differences between experimental and theoretical values of modulus of elasticity decrease.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Numerical Optimisation of Thickness of Composite Bonnet for Neonates

1 / Izabella Krucińska2

1Department of Technical Mechanics and Computer Science, Lodz University of Technology; Zeromskiego, 116; 90-924 Lodz, Poland

2Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology; Zeromskiego, 116; 90-924 Lodz, Poland

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 196–204, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2015-0039, December 2016


Head is the most sensitive body part of neonate. Head that is considerably uncovered causes the significant heat and moisture loss from the skin to the surrounding areas. The main goal is to optimise the thickness of a multilayer composite textile bonnet to secure the optimal skin parameters. Problem is solved using both sensitivity analysis and material derivative concept. An arbitrary objective functional is introduced, its first-order sensitivity is formulated by means of a direct approach. Numerical application is the thickness optimisation of a composite bonnet made of different textile materials.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Modeling and Analysis of the Motivations of Fast Fashion Consumers in Relation to Innovativeness

1 / Nazan Erdumlu1

1Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Textile Technologies and Design, Istanbul, Turkey.

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 205–213, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2015-0057, December 2016


In this study, fast fashion concept is investigated in order to understand the motivations of the consumers that make them adopt these products because of their willingness for the innovativeness. The relationship between the motivational factors which were named as “Social or status image” and “Uniqueness” as expressions of individuality, “Conformity” and the willingness for “Innovativeness” is analyzed using a conceptual model. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and validate the model. The data used for the study was obtained from 244 people living in Turkey. The findings showed that the motivational factors “Social or status image” and “Uniqueness” as expressions of individuality are influential on the consumers’ willingness for “Innovativeness”.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Influence of Kind of Weft Yarn on Properties of the Seersucker Woven Fabrics

1Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Lodz University of Technology

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Institute of Machine Tools and Production Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 214–221, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2016-0021, December 2016


Seersucker woven fabrics create a unique 3D woven structure. Such 3D structure is usually received on loom by an application of two warps of different tension. However, a kind of the weft yarn also significantly influences the structure and properties of the seersucker woven fabric. The paper presents an investigation of the seersucker fabrics made of the same set of warps and different weft yarns. The mechanical properties of the investigated fabrics were measured by means of the standardized testing methods. The structure of the fabric was assessed using the 3D laser scanning.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

1Technical University of Lodz, Department of Architecture of Textiles, Żeromskiego St. 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 228–235, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2016-0025, December 2016


This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart) clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Research on Biophysical Properties of Protective Clothing

1 / Piotr Dorawa1

1The Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Institute of Architecture of Textiles Lodz, Poland, tel: +48 42 631 33 50 Fax: +48 42 631 33 43

The aim of this research was to assess thermal insulation properties of select protective suits by performing appropriate tests on a thermal manikin according to Polish standards. The research was conducted for three variants of the user’s positions, which change during work. It has been demonstrated that different body positions, as well as movement of particular body parts, have a significant impact on changes of thermal insulation values of the tested clothing.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

Dongyong Zhu1 / 1 / Feng Xia1 / Yong Xu1

1College of Science, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China, 310018

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 241–249, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2015-0054, December 2016


In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Nonstandard Constructional Solutions in Contemporary Clothing Design

1 / Andrzej Nawrot1 / Małgorzata Łukawska1 / Aleksandra Wereszka1 / Łukasz Grzejszczak1 / Piotr Mastalerz1

1Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Institut of Architecture of Textiles, Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 250–255, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2016-0035, December 2016


The paper presents the influence of the design process on making the nonstandard patterns—constructional solutions in contemporary clothing design. A few examples of design processes have been presented, differing because of the source of inspiration and individuality of the designer in his or her strive to create original clothing forms. The influence of various factors connected with the development of new constructional solutions in clothing (including social, ideological, resulting from fashion trends, and the impact of the environment) has also been presented.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27

Fabric Selection for the Reference Clothing Destined for Ergonomics Test of Protective Clothing: Physiological Comfort Point of View

1 / Iwona Frydrych12 / Agnieszka Greszta1

1Department of Personal Protective Equipment, Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute, Lodz, Poland

2Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 256–261, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/aut-2016-0037, December 2016


The currently used methods of ergonomic assessment of protective clothing depend on the subjective feeling of research participants and don’t take into consideration all aspects of its use. Therefore, more amount of work is undertaken toward the development of new research tools for the ergonomic assessment of protective clothing. Research was carried out at the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute in Lodz. A new methodology will take into consideration a variant of reference clothing, which is related to the results of ergonomics research of protective clothing. Preparation of the reference clothing initiated by picking the appropriate fabric is based on the results of parameters influencing the physiological comfort and sensorial comfort. In the current part, results of different fabric parameters are presented, which are related to physiological comfort, i.e., the thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, hygroscopicity, and air permeability. In the next part of research, we will focus on the parameters related to objective sensorial feelings, i.e., total hand value and its components. Seven fabrics, including six cotton/polyester fabrics, diverse in terms of constituent fiber content and structure parameters (weave, thread density per 1 dm, thread linear density, mass per square meter, thickness), and Tencel/polyester fabric were tested. The best in terms of thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, and air permeability was the cotton/polyester fabric (35% cotton/65% PES) with the smallest mass per square meter. This fabric also exhibits the high hygroscopicity of 7.5%, which puts it into the fourth position.

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Date Added: 2016-12-27
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