Yarn-Dyed Fabric Defect Detection Based On Autocorrelation Function And GLCM
1School of Clothing and Textile, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 226–232, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0001, September 2015
In this study, a new detection algorithm for yarn-dyed fabric defect based on autocorrelation function and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is put forward. First, autocorrelation function is used to determine the pattern period of yarn-dyed fabric and according to this, the size of detection window can be obtained. Second, GLCMs are calculated with the specified parameters to characterise the original image. Third, Euclidean distances of GLCMs between being detected images and template image, which is selected from the defect-free fabric, are computed and then the threshold value is given to realise the defect detection. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this study can achieve accurate detection of common defects of yarn-dyed fabric, such as the wrong weft, weft crackiness, stretched warp, oil stain and holes.
Nanostructural Biochemical Modification Of Flax Fiber In The Processes Of Its Preparation For Spinning
1 Textile institute of Ivanovo State Politechnical University, Department of Technology ready-made garments, Russia Sheremetevsky prospekt 21, 153000 Ivanovo
2G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of RAS, Laboratory Chemistry and technology of non-linear processes, Russia Akademicheskaya St. 1, 153045 Ivanovo
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 215–225, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0003, September 2015
The elaborated principles of nanoengineering of linen textile materials implement the techniques of spatially localized effects of protein catalysts on polymeric cellulose companions with selective splitting of impurity compounds without damaging technologically necessary nano-sized formations of binders in the fiber structure. The ranges of optimal values of the residual content in flax fiber prepared for spinning are identified on the basis of the analysis of the successive stages of enzymatic and peroxide treatments contribution to the breakdown of polymers and the differentiation of the influence of impurities on the yarn technological properties. The recommended level of residual pectin, lignin and hemicellulose (wt. %) is: after enzymatic treatment P1 = 1,0±0,1; L1 = 3,9±0,3; Hc1 = 11,0±1,0; after peroxide bleaching P2 = 0,4±0,05; L2 = 2,3±0,3; Hc2 = 7,5±0,5. The required level of fiber structural modification at the stage of preparing roving for spinning can be achieved through use of protein catalysts whose globule size is 50...100 nm. The use of enzymes with these dimensional characteristics helps to ensure breaking of polymer adhesives on the surface of incrusts and in the areas of intercellular formations, which hinder fiber crushing, without damaging nano-sized binding fractions. The implementation of this method contributes to a significant improvement in the uniformity of structural and physical and mechanical properties of flax yarn. Increase in yarn fineness and strength properties of semi-finished products, as well as improvement of deformation properties and reduction of yarn breakages during the spinning processes are achieved.
The Effect Of Weave Construction On Tear Strength Of Woven Fabrics
1Istanbul Technical University, Textile Technologies and Design Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 207–214, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0004, September 2015
The tear strength of a woven fabric is very important, since it is more closely related to serviceability of the fabric. Tearing strength of the fabrics depend on the mobility of the yarn within the fabric structure. In this study, the tearing strength of four types of fabrics warp rib, weft rib, ripstop and plain weave were analysed, which were produced in different densities and with filament and texturised polyester yarns.
Mechanical Properties Of Traditional And Nanofibre Textiles
1Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Studentská 2, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic,
2Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Studentská 2, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 198–206, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0005, September 2015
This study deals with a comparison of mechanical properties of a conventional yarn and a textile from nanofibres. The conventional yarn represents the textile objects with high degree of orientation of fibres and the textile from nanofibres represents the textile objects with low degree of orientation of fibres. The theoretical section is concerned with the issue of internal structure of plied yarn and resulting differences in the orientation and straightening of fibres and in utilisation of deformation properties of fibres in comparison to the referred nano textile. The experimental section describes the manner of realisation of both static and dynamic tests of conventional yarn and strips of nanofibres. The results show differences in the mechanical properties of conventional yarn and textile strip from nanofibres under static and dynamic loading conditions. The processing technology of conventional yarn has been verified in the long term. But textiles from nanofibres are a relatively new material and mechanical properties of the detected differences point out possible problems with their behaviour during standard technological processes.
Knitting Technologies And Tensile Properties Of A Novel Curved Flat-Knitted Three-Dimensional Spacer Fabrics
1 Engineering Research Center for Knitting Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2 School of Art and Design, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090, China
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 191–197, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0006, September 2015
This paper introduces a knitting technique for making innovative curved three-dimensional (3D) spacer fabrics by the computer flat-knitting machine. During manufacturing, a number of reinforcement yarns made of aramid fibres are inserted into 3D spacer fabrics along the weft direction to enhance the fabric tensile properties. Curved, flat-knitted 3D spacer fabrics with different angles (in the warp direction) were also developed. Tensile tests were carried out in the weft and warp directions for the two spacer fabrics (with and without reinforcement yarns), and their stress–strain curves were compared. The results showed that the reinforcement yarns can reduce the fabric deformation and improve tensile stress and dimensional stability of 3D spacer fabrics. This research can help the further study of 3D spacer fabric when applied to composites.
Protective Footwear And The Risk Of Slipping In Older Workers – Definitions, Achievements, Recommendations
1Central Institute for Labour Protection–National Research Institute
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 181–190, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0009, September 2015
Foot slippage is the most widespread unforeseen event causing falls on the same level, and a potentially contributing factor to falls from height and falls to a lower level. Statistical data on the number of slip-related accidents at work show the importance of the problem of slipping and indicate the need to continuously improve preventive measures designed to reduce injuries related to slipping, tripping, and falling (STF) on the same level. It is therefore necessary to continuously and insightfully analyze the causes of falls and undertake efforts to eliminate the occurrence of slip- and trip-induced workplace accidents. The occurrence of slips and trips is primarily related to the type and quality of floor surfaces, but it also depends on the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs in the transitional phases of walking gait, sole material and tread, human factors such as age, weight, and motor and vision function, the ability to adapt to the floor surface conditions, as well as on a number of factors linked to the workplace environment and work organization. This problem is going to escalate as a result of the higher retirement age, due to which many persons over the age of 60 will have to continue working, often in hazardous conditions.
Investigation Of Sound Absorption Properties Of Bark Cloth Nonwoven Fabric And Composites
1Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 4, 461 15 Liberec, Czech Republic
2Department of Textile and Ginning Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Busitema University, P.O Box 236, Tororo, Uganda
3Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 173–180, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0010, September 2015
The quest for sound-absorbing materials that are not only environmentally friendly, but also sustainable is the foremost reason for natural fibre-acoustic materials. Bark cloth is a natural non-woven fabric that is largely produced from Ficus trees. An exploratory investigation of bark cloth a non-woven material and its reinforcement in epoxy polymer composites has been fabricated and investigated for the sound absorption properties so as to find the most suitable applications and also to see whether bark cloth can be used in some applications in place of man-made fibres. Three types of material species were investigated with their respective composites. The fibre morphology showed bark cloth to be a porous fabric that showed promising sound absorption properties at higher frequencies. The sound absorption results of four-layer material selections of Ficus natalensis, Ficus brachypoda and Antiaris toxicaria bark cloth showed sound absorption coefficient of 0.7; 0.71 and 0.91 at f > 6400 Hz, respectively. The bark cloth reinforced laminar epoxy composites had reduced sound absorption coefficients, which ranged from 0.1 to 0.35, which was attributed to decreased porosity and vibration in the bark cloth fibre network.
Preparation And Properties Of Bionanocomposite Films Reinforced With Nanocellulose Isolated From Moroccan Alfa Fibres
1Laboratoire de recherche sur les matériaux textiles, Ecole supérieure des industries de textile et de l’habillement, 20220 Casablanca, Morocco
2Laboratoire de Matériaux, Catalyse et Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles, URAC 24, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan II-Casablanca B.P. 146, 20650, Morocco
3Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science Innovation and Research (MAScIR), Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100-Rabat, Morocco
4Laboratoire de Physique et Mécanique Textiles, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs Sud Alsace, 68093 Mulhouse, France
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 164–172, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0011, September 2015
Nanocellulose (NC) were extracted from the Moroccan Alfa plant (Stipa tenacissima L.) and characterised. These Alfa cellulosic nanoparticles were used as reinforcing phase to prepare bionanocomposite films using carboxymethyl cellulose as matrix. These films were obtained by the casting/evaporation method. The crystallinity of NC was analysed by X-ray diffraction, the dimension of NC by atomic force microscopy, molecular interactions due to incorporation of NC in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) matrix were supported by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The properties of the ensuing bionanocomposite films were investigated using tensile tests, water vapour permeability (WVP) study and thermogravimetric analysis. With the progress of purification treatment of cellulose, the crystallinity is improved compared to the untreated fibres; this can be explained by the disappearance of the amorphous areas in cellulose chain of the plant. Consequently, the tensile modulus and tensile strength of CMC film increased by 60 and 47%, respectively, in the bionanocomposite films with 10 wt% of NC, and decrease by 8.6% for WVP with the same content of NC. The NC obtained from the Moroccan Alfa fibres can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bionanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.
Dye Removal From Textile Waste Water Through The Adsorption By Pumice Used In Stone Washing
1Ege University Engineering Faculty, Textile Engineering Department, Bornova, Izmir, 35100, Turkey, Tel:+90 232 311 27 55, Fax:+90 232 339 92 22
2Ege University Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, Bornova, Izmir, 35100, Turkey, Tel:+90 232 311 24 59, Fax:+90 232 388 77 76
3Ege University, Emel Akın Vocational Training School, Bornova, Izmir, 35100, Turkey, Tel:+90 232 311 16 08, Fax:+90 232 342 60 53
4Dokuz Eylül University, Engineering Faculty, Mining Engineering Department, Buca, İzmir, 35160, Turkey, Tel:+90 232 301 75 47, Fax:+90 232 453 08 68
5Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Bornova, Izmir, 35100, Turkey, Tel:+90 543 620 19 37, Fax:+90 256 521 12 70
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 158–163, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0012, September 2015
Because the waste production is inevitable in almost all industries, the elimination of these wastes is a requirement in terms of environmental regulations and welfare of all the creatures in the future. In this study, the use of the waste pumice stones of a denim washing mill is intended to eliminate the pollutant by a waste material and obtain economic benefits by converting it to the adsorbent. The pollutants in the effluents obtained from three different localisations of waste water treatment system of the same factory were removed through the adsorption. The experimental studies were carried out in three different steps; characterisation of adsorbent before and after adsorption; adsorption isotherm studies and biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. Characterisation studies showed that the waste pumice has almost the same structural properties with unused one except the existence of some organic residues coming from washing process. The results of adsorption studies conducted at the adsorbent concentrations changing from 5 to 35 g/l revealed that the decolourisation was initial dye-concentration dependent. According to the BOD and COD measurements, the supernatants obtained at the end of adsorption could be assumed as somewhat polluted and this result indicates that the organic impurities other than indigo were also removed through the adsorption.
Design Methodology And Performance Studies Of A Flexible Electrotextile Surface
1Dokuz Eylül University, Textile Eng. Dept. Tinaztepe Kampusu Buca, Izmir, 35397, Turkey
2Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Sakarya Cad. No.156 Balcova Izmir, 35330, Turkey
3Uniteks Textile Company, A.O.S.B. 10039 Sk. No.26 Cigli, Izmir, 35620, Turkey
Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 153–157, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.1515/aut-2015-0013, September 2015
‘The smart textiles’ concept has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort but also in terms of functions. The novel electro-textiles in the market open up new trends in smart and interactive gadgets. ‘Easy to care and durability’ properties are among the most important features of these products. On the other hand, wearable electronic knitwear has been gaining the attention of both researchers and industrial sectors. Combining knitting technology with electronics may become a dominant trend in the future because of the wide application possibilities. This research is concerned primarily with the design methodology of knitted fabrics containing electrically conductive textiles and especially in-use performance studies. The structural characteristics of the fabrics have been evaluated to enhance the performance properties.