Effect of Weave Structure on Thermo-Physiological Properties of Cotton Fabrics

1 / Faheem Ahmad1 / Ali Afzal1 / Abher Rasheed1 / Muhammad Mohsin2 / Niaz Ahmad1

1Faculty of Engineering & Technology, National Textile University, Faisalabad-37610, Pakistan

2Centre for Advancement of Textile Engineering and Technology, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Faisalabad Campus Faisalabad, Pakistan

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 30–34, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0011, March 2015


This paper aims to investigate the relationship between fabric weave structure and its comfort properties. The two basic weave structures and four derivatives for each selected weave structure were studied. Comfort properties, porosity, air permeability and thermal resistance of all the fabric samples were determined. In our research the 1/1 plain weave structure showed the highest thermal resistance making it suitable for cold climatic conditions. The 2/2 matt weave depicted the lowest thermal resistance which makes it appropriate for hot climatic conditions.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

12 / Teodor-Cezar Codau3 / Petrusic Stojanka3 / Bedek Gauthier1 / Dupont Daniel1 / Soulat Damien3

1GEMTEX, HEI, Université Catholique de Lille, Lille, F-59046, France,

2Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Iasi, 700050, Romania

3GEMTEX, ENSAIT, Université Lille Nord de France, Roubaix, F-59056, France

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 35–47, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0015, March 2015

In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Evaluation of Illumination Intensity of Plastic Optical Fibres with Tio2 Particles by Laser Treatment

1 / Dana Křemenáková1 / Jiří Militký1 / Guocheng Zhu1 / Guocheng Zhu1

1Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Department of Material Engineering, Liberec, Czech Republic

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 13–18, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0016, March 2015


CO2 laser treatment can increase the surface roughness of plastic optical fibres (POFs) with the diameter of 0.5 mm and enhance the input intensity and attenuation coefficient accordingly, which is supposed to weaken the side emission of POFs in long distance above 375 mm. TiO2 particles were applied to improve the increasing optical loss of POFs by laser treatment. POFs were first modified with fine TiO2 particles and then treated by CO2 laser with the pixel time from 30 to 120 ìs. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the changes of micro-structure before and after laser treatment and the distribution of TiO2 particles. The illumination intensity and attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared in two methods. It is visible that the evaluation by model LLF2 with two parts is more suitable for the fitting of experimental data and shows higher input intensity and lower attenuation than that by standard power function. Both the evaluation methods exhibit that the utilization of TiO2 particles could play an active role in the enhancement of side emission of POFs treated by CO2 laser.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Air permeability of polyester nonwoven fabrics

1 / Dana Kremenakova1 / Yan Wang1 / Jiri Militky1

1Department of textile material engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic, Studentská 1402/2, Tel: +420 776109703

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 8–12, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0019, March 2015

Air permeability is one of the most important properties of non-woven fabrics in many applications. This paper aims to investigate the effects of thickness, porosity and density on the air permeability of needle-punched non-woven fabrics and compare the experimental values with two models which are based on hydraulic radius theory and drag theory, respectively. The air permeability of the samples was measured by an air permeability tester FX3300. The results showed that the air permeability of non-woven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness and density of samples, increased with the increase of porosity, and the air permeability was not directly proportional to the pressure gradient. Meanwhile, the prediction model based on hydraulic radius theory had a better agreement with experimental values than the model based on drag theory, but the values were much higher than the experimental results, especially for higher porosity and higher pressure gradient.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Human-Friendly Design of Virtual System “female Body-dress”

1 / Victor E. Kuzmichev1 / Dominique C. Adolphe2

1Ivanovo State Polytechnic University, Textile Institute, Clothing Design Department, Ivanovo, 21, Sheremetev Av., Ivanovo, Russian Federation, tel.: +74932937881, fax: + 74932412108

2University of Haute-Alsace, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs Sud-Alsace, 11, rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse, France, tel. 33 389336320, fax: +33 389336339

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 19–29, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0033, March 2015


Recently, the development efforts focused on the computer simulation of garments, which depend on the material's physico-mechanical properties. It intends to achieve the best possible and realistic simulations of garments, which are available for pressure prediction. In this manner, 3D garment virtual technology improvements allow the visualization of pressure areas with values where the fabric might be too tight against the body. Although the purposes of simulation graphics were acceptable, the accuracy for apparel shaping is not enough to meet the needs of Virtual Prototyping and CAD utilization especially while the fabric properties system design was inadequate. Moreover, the existing pressure simulation is intended to simply predict the pressure index or how the textile deformation extend, which are deficient in real human's perception. In this research, the 3D shapes belonging to typical female bodies and dresses made of different fabrics were obtained by 3D body scanners (ScanWorX and TELMAT). Through reconstruction for the 3D torso shapes, the volumetric eases between body and dress were calculated by means of a software Rhinoceros. A new approach for the selection of textile properties based on the Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was proposed to investigate its relations with dress shaping and pressure comfort. Finally, fabric properties tested by the KES-F system were compared with volumetric eases, objective pressure indexes and subjective comfort scores to reveal the relations how the fabric properties have impacts on dress outside shaping and inside pressure comfort of a female body. In this manner, the human-friendly CAD instead of mechanical approach existing before has been presented as a new approach to promote the construction of a realistic system for the 3D simulation optimization.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Finite Element Modelling for Tensile Behaviour of Thermally Bonded Nonwoven Fabric

1 / Liping Wang1

1Inner Mongolia University of Technology, College of Light Industry and Textile, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010080, China +864713603443

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 48–53, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0035, March 2015


A nonwoven fabric has been widely used in geotextile engineering in recent years; its tensile strength is an important behaviour. Since the fibre distributions in nonwoven fabrics are random and discontinuous, the unit-cell model of a nonwoven fabric cannot be developed to simulate its tensile behaviour. This article presents our research on using finite element method (FEM) to study the tensile behaviour of a nonwoven fabric in macro-scale based on the classical laminate composite theory. The laminate orientation was considered with orientation distribution function of fibres, which has been obtained by analysing the data acquired from scanning electron microscopy with Hough Transform. The FE model of a nonwoven fabric was developed using ABAQUS software; the required engineering constants of a nonwoven fabric were obtained from experimental data. Finally, the nonwoven specimens were stretched along with machine direction and cross direction. The experimental stress-strain curves were compared with the results of FE simulations. The approximate agreement proves the validity of an FE model, which could be used to precisely simulate the stress relaxation, strain creep, bending and shear property of a nonwoven fabric.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Mathematical Model of the Heald with Damping Element

1 / Josef Skřivánek Ahmad1

1Department of Textile Machine Design of Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic, Studentska 2, +420 48 5353174

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 1–7, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0038, March 2015.


This study focuses on the analysis of the existing design solution of shedding mechanism. It is characterised by a heald attachment into the heald shaft with a necessary design allowance. The preparation of a mathematical model for the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame is explained in this study. A damping element for dissipating the energy created during the heald impact on the carrying wire of the heald shaft is currently used for the high-speed weaving loom. This system makes use of a damping element, fitted in the profile of the rod at an optimum distance from heald eye. This element provides for reduction of the heald velocity before its drop upon the supporting wire because the opposite section of the heald is pressed into the rubber element. The calculated results of the new concept of the heald attaching to the heald shaft frame are compared with the existing solution without application of the damping element.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Moisture Comfort and Antibacterial Properties of Elastic Warp-Knitted Fabrics

Zhi-Cai Yu1 / Jian-Fei Zhang2 / Ching-Wen Lou3 / Hua-Ling He1 / An-Pang Chen4 / 456

1Eastern Liaoning University, Functional Textile Materials Laboratory of Eastern Liaoning University, School of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Dandong, 118003, China

2Tianjin Polytechnic University, School of Textiles, Tianjin 300387, China

3Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Taichung, 40601, Taiwan

4Feng Chia University, Laboratory of Fiber Application and Manufacturing, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan

5China Medical University, School of Chinese Medicine, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

6Asia University, Department of Fashion Design, Taichung 41354, Taiwan

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 60–66, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0040, March 2015


Multifunction elastic warp-knitted fabrics were fabricated on a crochet machine with the use of metal composite yarns/viscose yarn and bamboo polyester/ crisscross-section polyester hybrid yarns as the front face and back face of the knitted fabric structure, respectively. We investigated the effect of the blend ratio of bamboo charcoal/ crisscross-section polyester multiply yarns on the fabric's moisture comfort properties, such as water vapour transmission (WVT), water evaporation rate (WER), and water absorbency. The results showed that blending ratio significantly influenced WVT and WER. Moreover, antibacterial activity of the elastic warp- knitted fabric was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in accordance with AATCC 90-2011. Finally, the extension- stress value curves were used to analyse the elastic stretching property, and the fabric exhibited greater breaking elongation and lower stress value in the walewise than in the weft direction.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Comparison of Japanese and Chinese Clothing Evaluations by Experts Taking into Account Marketability

KyoungOk Kim1 / 1 / AliChunhong Zhu2 / Tsuyoshi Otani3

1Division of Kansei and Fashion Engineering, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano, Japan

2Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Japan

3Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Japan

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 67–76, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2014-0047, March 2015


To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in Beijing. Five of the Chinese clothing samples were judged as impossible to sell in Japanese department stores primarily because the sewing quality was incompatible with Japanese requirements, the designs were outdated, and the materials were of low quality. However, the other five Chinese clothing samples received high evaluations of marketability in Japan. We found that Japanese experts focused on general design and sewing finish, while Chinese experts considered more general design points. Thus, our results indicate that clothing is evaluated differently in Japan and China. We conclude that it is necessary to consider the respective evaluation points used in each country as we pursue globalisation.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26

Pcl/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Tubes Made by Dual Syringe Electrospinning

Martin Hild1 / 2 / 1 / Georgios Toskas1 / Tong Cheng1 / Ezzedine Laourine1 / Chokri Cherif1

1Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

2Biomedical Technology Department, Applied Medical Sciences College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Citation Information: Autex Research Journal. Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 54–59, ISSN (Online) 2300-0929, DOI: 10.2478/aut-2015-0016, March 2015.


3D tubular scaffolds made from Poly-(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)/chitosan (CS) nanofibres are very promising candidate as vascular grafts in the field of tissue engineering. In this work, the fabrication of PCL/CS-blended nanofibrous tubes with small diameters by electrospinning from separate PCL and CS solutions is studied. The influence of different CS solutions (CS/polyethylene glycol (PEO)/glacial acetic acid (AcOH), CS/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), CS/ AcOH) on fibre formation and producibility of nanofibrous tubes is investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to verify the presence of CS in the blended samples. Tensile testing and pore size measurements are done to underline the good prerequisites of the fabricated blended PCL/ CS nanofibrous tubes as potential scaffolds for vascular grafts. Tubes fabricated from the combination of PCL and CS dissolved in AcOH possesses properties, which are favourable for future cell culture studies.

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Date Added: 2015-03-26
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