MANUFACTURING METHODS FOR MULTI STEP INDEX PLASTIC OPTICAL FIBER MATERIALS
Plastic optical fibres (POF) are often used in telecommunication, consumer electronics and automotive applications. Measuring and control devices used for POF are already standardised procedures. To meet the requirements of the IEEE 1394 standard for data transfer rates up to 800Mbps requires increasingly improved performance of POF. POFs which offer high bandwidth, total electromagnetic immunity and simple handling are considered as an alternative to noisy copper cables (cat 5) and high performance glass optic fibres for of a data highway. The market requires a simple and inexpensive alternative that would not be a technical overkill. The target of the study carried out in the Institute of Fibre Materials Science at Tampere University of Technology was to evaluate manufacturing methods which would allow this. This is a summary article of the results of manufacturing step index and multi-step index POF by preform manufacturing followed by fibre drawing as well as the extrusion method.
STUDIES ON KERATIN/CELLULOSE FILMS FROM CUPRAMMONIUM SOLUTION
This work deals with the preparation and characterisation of keratin/cellulose films prepared by coagulating polymers blends from cuprammonium solution. Films were obtained by blending keratin extracted from wool by m-bisulphite/urea solution and cellulose in several proportions. The molecular weight distributions of extracted and regenerated protein were studied by gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); the chemical structure and molecular conformation were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy; the surface morphology of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
ABRASION RESISTANCE OF COTTON/FLAX FABRICS: 3D COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF FABRIC WEAR GEOMETRY
Geometrical models constructed using WiseTex software are used to describe the abrasion resistance of flax/cotton two-layered fabrics. Good agreement with experimental observations is found.
CORRECTION OF COLOUR VALUES OF WOVEN FABRICS USING CHANGES TO CONSTRUCTIONAL PARAMETERS
The aim of this research is to enable corrections to colour values of woven fabrics by changing the constructional parameters. It was assumed that when a yarn of a certain fineness was not available, it was substituted with a yarn of lower fineness. The different thread fineness caused colour deviations between two fabrics, and to this end our experimental work aimed to find out whether the changes of other constructional parameters (density) could correct differences in colour effects on fabric surfaces.
INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTATION ON HANK-DYEING: MODELLING EQUIPMENT AND WATER ECONOMISATION DURING RINSING
The hydrodynamics of a dyeing machine affects the exchange mechanisms between a textile material and the liquid medium to a large extent. Namely, the transfer of dyes and chemicals from the dyeing liquor and the release of non-bonded substances during subsequent rinsing steps can be altered by relative movement between phases. Such aspects have not been investigated thoroughly, although the typical approach of chemical engineering can offer a relevant contribution in this view. As a practical result, important benefits may follow in various operations of the dyeing process, aimed at optimising the equipment use or saving resources, in particular water. The attention of this study was focused on hank-dyeing machinery, since this production demands a considerable amount of water due to the large liquor ratios. The experimental study was carried out at a textile industry facility by operating on two units of equipment at significantly different scales. The rinsing operation was monitored by sampling the liquid at several positions along the vertical direction of the liquor: colour, conductivity and other chemical properties were measured in order to devise an optimal production policy aimed at saving water.
A mathematical model of the equipment, based on a simple hydrodynamic hypothesis and proper mass balances, was proposed, and its outputs were compared with the experimental results. Both practical considerations and the theoretical analysis suggest that water requirement during rinsing can be halved by modifying the procedure without affecting the final quality of products.
NUMERICAL IDENTIFICATION OF ELASTICITY COEFFICIENTS FOR THE BENDING PROBLEM
A test for identifying elasticity coefficients for the bending problem is discussed. Bending is a problem of flat textiles, and its existence is demonstrated by experimental material on the basis of coordinates of a bent sample. In this paper, we propose another usage of Peirce's cantilever test for determining the relationship between bending moment and curvature. Measuring error was taken into consideration during analysis. The results of calculation have been limited to the relationship between bending moment and curvature mainly of the second degree, but in this way the relationships of a higher degree can be examined. For the analysis a special computer program was developed, which can calculate the coordinates of a bent sample on the basis of an image saved as a .bmp file (bitmap).
BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS E-BUSINESS MODELS: CLASSIFICATION AND TEXTILE INDUSTRY IMPLICATIONS
Since the introduction of the Internet and e-commerce in the mid 1990s, there has been a lot of hype surrounding e-business and the impact that it will have on the way that companies do business and how it will change the global economy as a whole. After the crash of the dotcom's in 2001 there has been much less hype surrounding the use of the Internet for business. There seems to have been a realization that e-business may not be the answer to all of a company's problems, but can be a great asset in the struggle to increase the efficiencies in daily business dealings and that the Web is primarily a new way of relating to customers and suppliers. This paper categorizes and discusses the different types of business-to-business electronic business models currently being used by businesses and discussed in the academic literature and shows how these business models are being implemented within the textile industry. This paper is divided into three parts. Part I gives an overview and some important definitions associated with business-to-business e-business and discusses some characteristics that are unique to doing business on the Internet. Risks and benefits associated with doing business online are also discussed. Part II analyzes the different types of e-business models seen in the academic literature. Based on the analysis of the literature, a taxonomy of e-business models was developed. This new classification system organized e-business models into the following categories: sourcing models, ownership models, service-based models, customer relationship management models, supply chain models, interaction Models and revenue models. Part III reviews how these e-business models are currently being used within the textile industry. A preliminary analysis of 79 textile manufacturing companies was conducted to identify the applications of e-business.
OUTSOURCING AS A MODERN MANAGEMENT STRATEGY. PROSPECTS FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROTECIVE CLOTHING MARKET
Outsourcing is a very successful and increasingly popular enterprise management strategy. The aim of this article is to analyse prospects for outsourcing development in the protecive clothing market. The author attempts to present outsourcing as a very successful competitive tool and a way of strengthening a given firm’s position in the protective clothing market, especially in the face of growing competitive pressures and progressing globalisation.